Soil is a substrate that gives the human the largest part of everything that is necessary existence. A man may refuse something but he cannot cut off food and nearly every kind of food comes out of the soil or is connected to it.
Soil protection is very important for Georgia. This is a state problem as there is a great loss of soil as a result of littering and polluting soil, erosive processes, turning secondary boggy of soil and over-salting, obtaining useful minerals and building materials according to open rule, wrong actions of human.
Territory of Georgia consists of 7628,4 thousand ha. Its 3025,8 thousand ha (39,7%), is agricultural lands. Among them arable land is 801,8 thousand ha which consists of 26,5%) of the whole agricultural land, grassland covers 143,8 thousand ha (4,8%) and pastures consist of 1796, 6 thousand ha (59,4%).
20,1 thousand ha (0,7%) with houses, buildings and yards is registered in agricultural cultivation land too.
4602,6 thousand ha (60,3%) of the territory of the country is covered by forest shrubbery, water, roads, buildings and other unused (rocks, canyons, sandy ground, erosive landslide areas, glaciers, cemetery territories) areas.
The soil is divided according two main forms:
I. private property - 948,9 thousand ha, where is also registered the areas including lands of homestead collective gardening delivered to the citizens existing before the reform and also areas delivered additionally. This is 934, 3 thousand ha in total and 14, 6 thousand ha announced as a private property of former beneficiaries from the non-agricultural lands.
II. State property including 6679, 5 thousand ha,
Among them are as follows:
- 2822, 3 thousand ha of agricultural lands (there is registered scientific, research, educational offices, experimental and selective stations, agricultural enterprises, cooperatives, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, subsidiary farming and rural farming);
- 3857,2 thousand ha of non-agricultural organizations including as follows:
- 88,4 thousand ha of populated districts (cities, towns, settlements and resorts);
- 300,7 thousand ha of protected areas;
- 2456,2 thousand ha of forest fund;
- 171,9 thousand ha of industry, transport, communications, radio, television and other information broadcasting, energy, defense etc;
- 4,9 thousand ha of religion organizations;
- 835,1 - thousand ha of water fund.
Therefore land use of the country consists of 7628,4 thousand ha.